Amira’s Picture Day Lesson Activity

Cover of Amira's Picture Day by Reem Faruqi and Fahmida Azim

Summary

It’s the night before Eid, and Amira is busy preparing for the holiday celebration. She fills goody bags with candy and decorates her hands with henna. Her Eid shalwar kameez is hanging on the closet door, ready to wear to the masjid. Amira loves celebrating with family and friends. 

Tomorrow is also picture day at school. This upsets Amira. She’s afraid that if she’s not in the class photo, nobody will remember her.  

When Amira arrives at the masjid the next day, she’s happy to see her friends. The decorations are beautiful and the food smells delicious. Amira has a great time. 

Amira packs up the extra goodie bags when the festivities end. She realizes that school is still in session, and asks if she can bring the treats to her class. 

Amira feels a little funny and nervous about walking into her classroom. She’s still wearing her shalwar kameez, and no one will know why she missed school that morning. Amira’s mother explains the absence to the teacher, and the class is happy to see Amira. They  love her clothes and her decorated hands. 

The story ends with the class getting their picture taken. Amira is in the photo. She made it back to class in time for the class picture. 

The illustrations in this story capture the joyful celebration of Eid. The pages are full of candy, streamers, and clothes in brilliant colors. The story will compel readers to learn more about unfamiliar words and practices. 

Two pages of the book Amira's Picture Day by Reem Faruqi and Fahmida Azim. The pages show hands decorated with mehndi designs.

Lesson

AASL Standards Framework for Learners: Inquire/Grow: I.D.1 Learners participate in an ongoing inquiry-based process by continually seeking knowledge.

Engage learners by asking them to name a favorite holiday. Explain that you are going to read a story about a holiday called Eid. Show the cover of Amira’s Picture Day by Reem Faruqi and Fahmida Azim. Explain that Eid is a religious holiday celebrated by Muslims. Ask learners to share what they already know about Eid. 

Explain that Eid could fall on a school day. When that happens, Muslims go to a place of worship instead of school. Sometimes, this means that they miss out on special school activities. 

Discussion Questions

Ask the following questions as you read Amira’s Picture Day by Reem Faruqi and Fahmida Azim:

  • “Take a look at the cover of the book. What do you notice? What questions do you have? Now, what do you notice about the endpapers? What questions do you have?” (cover and front endpapers)
  • “What is happening on the title page?” (title page)
  • “How do Amira and Ziyad feel about seeing the Moon?” (pp. 1-2)
  •  “What questions do you have about Eid after reading these pages?” (pp. 3-4)
  • “What are we learning about the celebration so far?” (pp. 5-6)
  • “How is Amira feeling about picture day? How do you know this?” (pp. 7-8)
  • “How does Amira feel about her mother’s response about picture day? How do you know this?” (p. 9)
  • “Why was Amira upset about missing the class picture?” (p. 10)
  • “How is Amira feeling on these pages? What makes you say so?” (pp. 11-12)
  • “What new information did you learn about Eid on this page?” (p. 14)
  • “What else can we infer about Eid after looking at this double-page spread?” (pp. 15-16) 
  • “Why do you suppose Amira feels a little funny?” (p. 26)
  • “What did the teacher learn about Eid?” (p. 27)
  • “How do the classmates respond to Amira’s traditional clothing and decorated hands?” (p. 28)

Amira’s Picture Day Lesson Activity

Ask readers to consider the author’s purpose for writing the story. Invite learners to learn more about Eid or another holiday they are unfamiliar with. 

Introduce a favorite database or nonfiction book series to help answer questions. Tell learners to record lingering questions as they research their topic. 

After they gather information, ask learners to consider how they can share what they learned. 

Skillshare Course

After reading this story, I wanted to learn about mehndi. Skillshare offers classes on this craft. I watched Puja Modi’s course and learned how to make a mehndi cone, mix a batch of henna, and paint designs.

Decorating with henna and a mehndi cone is a lot like decorating a cake. It takes practice to get the mixture at the right consistency. My first batch was probably too thick. Sometimes, the mixture got stuck and I had to apply more pressure to the cone. This left clumpy lines.

I look forward to trying it again. I’ll stick with practicing on paper for a while. I want to get a good handle on it before trying to design on skin.

If you’d like to check out Skillshare free for 14 days, you can use my teacher referral link. I will get a small fee if you decide to subscribe. Click here for the referral link.

Cover of Lessons Inspired by Picture Books for Primary Grades by Maureen Schlosser and Rebecca Granatini

If you like these lesson ideas, please take a look at our book, Lessons Inspired by Picture Books for Primary Grades. This resource includes ready-to-go lesson plans that meet the standards. Worksheets, assessments and rubrics are included.

Fatima’s Great Outdoors Lesson Activity

Promotional image for the picture book Fatima's Great Outdoors by Ambreen Tariq and Stevie Lewis. The book is in the center of the image with wood and leaves in the background.

Summary

Fatima Khazi is having a hard time at her new school. Classmates wrinkle their noses at the food she brings for lunch. They make of the way she pronounces words, and her grades are below average.

But when she’s camping with her family, Fatima can relax. She enjoys eating familiar food like shami kabab. She’s also excited to try bacon for breakfast “like the other American families” (23).

Spending time in nature with her family transforms Fatima. She learns how to assemble a tent, build a fire, and face her fear of spiders. Camping helps Fatima feel confident, and she takes her new energy back to school.

Throughout the story, readers will encounter words associated with Indian culture. The storyline and illustrations help readers infer the meaning of these words. Readers will love the digital illustrations by Stevie Lewis.

Author Ambreen Tariq wrote this book to inspire all readers to connect with the outdoors. Her #BrownPeopleCamping social media campaign inspires all families to spend time outside.

Listen to Camping is an Adventure for All Americans in ‘Fatima’s Great Outdoors’ from NPR. This riveting interview explains why the @BrownPeopleCamping campaign is important for America.

Two pages in the picture book Fatima's Great Outdoors by Ambreen Tariq and Stevie Lewis.

Discussion Questions

AASL Standards Framework for Learners: Inquire/Think I.B.3: Learners engage with new knowledge by following a process that includes generating products that illustrate learning.

Begin this lesson activity by showing learners the cover of Fatima’s Great Outdoors. Ask learners what they expect to learn from the story. Discuss the following questions as you read the story:

  • “What can we tell about Fatima’s school by looking at this illustration? How do you think Fatima feels about school? ” (pp.1-2)
  • “After reading these pages, how has your thinking changed about Fatima and school?” (pp. 3-4)
  • “What did you learn about Fatima’s family on this page?” (pg. 6)
  • “How did Fatima’s feelings change about assembling the tent?” (pp. 13-15)
  • “What questions do you have about the food they brought on their camping trip?” (pg. 16)
  • “What did you learn about Fatima’s family after reading these pages?” (pp. 17-18)
  • “Why do you think Fatima wanted to have bacon ‘like the other American families?’” (p. 23)
  • “How did Fatima’s feelings change about building a campfire?” (pp.25-30)
  • “What new information did we learn about Fatima’s family after reading these pages?” (pp. 29-30)
  • “What did Fatima appreciate about the camping trip?” (pp.31-33)

Fatima’s Great Outdoors Lesson Activity

Ask learners to compare how Fatima felt about school before and after she went camping. Invite learners to explain how the camping trip empowered Fatima. Learners can illustrate Fatima as a superhero using her superpowers in nature or at school.

Thank you, Kim Kaelin, for bringing this book and the NPR interview to my attention! I’m grateful for your contribution to our Facebook Group.

Cover of Lessons Inspired by Picture Books for Primary Grades by Maureen Schlosser and Rebecca Granatini.
If you like these lesson ideas, please take a look at our book, Lessons Inspired by Picture Books for Primary Grades. This resource includes ready-to-go lesson plans that meet the standards. Worksheets, assessments and rubrics are included.

Milo Imagines the World Lesson Activity

Promotional image for a lesson activity based on the book Milo Imagines the World. The cover of the book Milo Imagines the World by Matt de la Peña and Christian Robinson is featured in the center of the image. Crayons and crayon drawings surround the book.

Summary

When Milo gets anxious, he imagines stories about the people around him. He studies their faces and conjures up images of what their lives must be like. Milo captures his imagination by drawing his visions in his sketchpad.

But could he be making correct judgements about the people he sees? Milo begins to change his thinking when he realizes one of his stories is wrong. He wonders about the quick judgments he’s made and considers different possibilities.

Milo questions what people might think of him. Can they see that he is a poet and his aunt takes good care of him? Do they know that his mother loves him very much and is incarcerated?

Milo Imagines the World is a beautiful story that opens up a conversation about bias and empathy. Illustrator Christian Robinson based Milo’s story on his own life. When Robinson felt overwhelmed as a child, drawing gave him a sense of control. His imagination opened up a world of possibilities while living in a small space without his mom.

Author Matt de la Peña does an incredible job unfolding Milo’s story. Readers first see Milo waiting for a subway train. The words describing the approaching train help readers see, feel, and hear the train as it comes to a stop. Text clues help the reader learn more about Milo as he travels. We get a full understanding of Milo by the end of the story where we read how he feels while hugging his family.

Double-page spread of Milo Imagines the World by Matt de la Peña and Christian Robinson.

Lesson Activity

AASL Standards Framework for Learners: Explore/Think V.A.2: Learners develop and satisfy personal curiosity by reflecting and questioning assumptions and possible misconceptions.

When looking at the cover of Milo Imagines the World, what do you suppose the story is about? I thought we would learn about a boy who aspires to be an engineer. I made this assumption because of the cityscape drawings and the pencil behind Milo’s ear. Reading Milo’s story made me realize how wrong I was with my first impression.

I fell into the same trap that Milo did in the story. I made a quick judgement about Milo just by looking at the cover of the book. Matt de la Peña wrote this book to help people like me learn to question first impressions. He wants readers to consider different possibilities with the people we see.

This lesson activity will help readers to question their first assumptions of Milo after reading Milo Imagines the World.

Begin the lesson by showing learners the cover of the book. Ask learners to share what the illustrator wants us to know about Milo. Record responses on chart paper.

Tell readers that while you read, their job is to notice new information about Milo. Learners can infer how he feels and discover his living situation. Record new information on the chart paper.

At the end of the story, learners will know more about Milo. Invite learners to reflect on how their thinking changed about Milo from the beginning of the story to the end. Discuss how Milo questioned his assumptions and considered different possibilities. Ask why it’s important to practice this reflection process when meeting new people.

Subscribe to our blog to get access to our free lesson activity worksheets. A worksheet is available for Milo Meets the World.

Cover of Lessons Inspired by Picture Books for Primary Grades by Maureen Schlosser and Rebecca Granatini.
If you like these lesson ideas, please take a look at our book, Lessons Inspired by Picture Books for Primary Grades. This resource includes ready-to-go lesson plans that meet the standards. Worksheets, assessments and rubrics are included.

Our Little Kitchen by Jillian Tamaki

Promotional blog banner featuring the book Our Little Kitchen by Jillian Tamaki. Steam rises above the book, highlighting the idea that the setting of the story takes place in a kitchen.

Summary

What does it take to make a satisfying meal for hungry neighbors? Passionate volunteers who are ready to work with whatever they have. In Our Little Kitchen, by Jillian Tamaki, readers watch volunteers pick garden vegetables, rifle through refrigerated items, and warm up day-old bread. They peel, chop and cook in a hurried rush. The clock ticks away the minutes before they welcome their neighbors with food.

Tamaki does an incredible job tackling a serious topic with playful text and drawings. Spot illustrations with interesting text features help readers get a feel for the sights, sounds and emotions that fill the community kitchen. The story is full of love, light and compassion.

The author’s note explains how Tamaki volunteered for many years in a community kitchen. She gives background information about the work and presents reasons why her neighbors were hungry. Our Little Kitchen captures a small moment in Tamaki’s big effort to raise awareness about hunger in local communities.

Double-page spread in the book Our Little Kitchen by Jillian Tamaki. Large cans of beans spill over the pages, with a cook and a child falling with the beans.

Response to Literature

AASL Standards Framework for Learners Collaborate/Create III.B.1 Learners participate in personal, social, and intellectual networks by using a variety of communication tools and resources.

How are your neighbors doing? Contact your local food bank, community kitchen or social services to see if there is a need for donations. Consider inviting representatives from the organizations for a class visit. They can explain their roles in helping the community and point to areas where they need support. Learners can work together to create a plan to get food to those in need.

Do you want to learn about a grocery store that is making an impact on their community? Learn about the Daily Table in Massachusetts. The only items you’ll find in the store are nutritious groceries and prepared meals at low prices. Find out how they do this by reading their website. It’s good stuff!

Cover of Lessons Inspired by Picture Books for Primary Grades by Maureen Schlosser and Rebecca Granatini.
If you like these lesson ideas, please take a look at our book, Lessons Inspired by Picture Books for Primary Grades. This resource includes ready-to-go lesson plans that meet the standards. Worksheets, assessments and rubrics are included.

New eCourse

Would you like to learn how to create a lesson plan based on the AASL Standards Framework for learners? Please join me for a 4-week course starting February 1, 2021! During our time together, you will learn how to:

1) find a compelling picture book

2) name an AASL Standard and classroom standards to work with

3) write an objective and a lesson

4) create a rubric to assess learning

By the end of this course, you will have a lesson plan that you can use with your learning community. Every week, you will watch a video, participate in a Zoom meeting, and complete an assignment. The Zoom meetings will take place on Thursday evenings at 7:00 PM Central Standard Time. Here, we can share resources, ideas, and offer support as we build our lesson plans.

The class size is limited to 30 participants, so please sign up today!

https://aasl.digitellinc.com/aasl/store/31/index/158

Snail Crossing by Corey Tabor Lesson Activity

This is a promotional image for a blog post about a lesson activity for the book Snail Crossing by Corey R. Tabor.

Summary

Think of a time when you really wanted something. Did anything get in the way of you reaching your goal? In Snail Crossing, by Corey R. Tabor, Snail spies a cabbage patch on the other side of a countryside road. Snail loves cabbage, and is determined to crawl across the street to the garden. The journey will be difficult, but nothing will stop Snail from reaching the goal.

Readers will enjoy making predictions with Snail Crossing. Fun surprises mixed in with expected scenarios make this a fun read aloud. The audience will never guess the ending of this entertaining story.

Delightful illustrations describe a challenging journey from different viewpoints. Scenes from the sky and the street give readers an idea of how big the challenge is for Snail. Wavy lines that trail behind Snail add more information about a difficult trek.

Lesson Activity

AASL Standards Framework for Learners: Explore/Grow V.D.1 Learners develop through experience and reflection by iteratively responding to challenges.

Snail was determined to get to the cabbage patch. Nothing would stand in Snail’s way. Cars, crows and even the rain could not stop Snail.

After reading about Snail’s determination, invite learners to think about something they really want. This could be something they hope to achieve, learn or create.

Ask learners to consider obstacles that might get in the way of reaching their goal. How can they work around obstacles they may face? Direct learners to create a plan to respond to possible challenges.

This lesson activity supports the Explore Shared Foundation. Click here for more lessons that compel learners to explore.

Cover of Lessons Inspired by Picture Books for Primary Grades by Maureen Schlosser and Rebecca Granatini.
If you like these lesson ideas, please take a look at our book, Lessons Inspired by Picture Books for Primary Grades. This resource includes ready-to-go lesson plans that meet the standards. Worksheets, assessments and rubrics are included.

If You Come to Earth Lesson Activity

This is a promotional image for a lesson activity for the picture book If You Come to Earth by Sophie Blackall.

Summary

If You Come to Earth, by Sophie Blackall, is an incredible treasure. The wondrous illustrations and storyline will fill your heart and mind with awe. Evocative artwork fills every page, inviting readers to notice our amazing world. You’ll appreciate the incredible amount of work that went into every detail in this brilliant book.

In the story, Quinn writes a letter to a martian. He tells the extra-terrestrial all there is to know about Earth. Quinn captures the beauty, joys and splendors of our world. He describes the people and animals that inhabit the planet.

Fans of Hello Lighthouse will smile when they recognize Blackall’s technique for containing illustrations in circular shapes. The images inside each circle add information to the story. Some circles show what characters are thinking, while others illustrate feelings.

Lesson Activity

AASL Standards Framework for Learners Inquire/Create l.B.3 Learners engage with new knowledge by following a process that includes generating products that illustrate learning.

If You Come to Earth invites us to recognize how amazing our world is. This concept might be hard to realize today when the world is in turmoil. Encourage learners to think about something or someone that gives them peace and makes them smile. Share ideas with the group.

Encourage learners to illustrate and write about their ideas. Invite them to add things they wonder about. They can save their work for a time when they need respite from troublesome world events.

Click here for more lesson activities that support the Inquire Shared Foundation. This lesson activity supports the AASL Standard Framework for Learners.

Cover of Lessons Inspired by Picture Books for Primary Grades by Maureen Schlosser and Rebecca Granatini.
If you like these lesson ideas, please take a look at our book, Lessons Inspired by Picture Books for Primary Grades. This resource includes ready-to-go lesson plans that meet the standards. Worksheets, assessments and rubrics are included.

Undercover Ostrich Lesson Activity

Digital image to promote a lesson activity for the book Undercover Ostrich by Joe Kulka. The cover of the book is at the center of the image with drawings of a mask and an ostrich on either side of the picture book.

Summary

If you were an ostrich, how would you disguise yourself? It can’t be easy. But the narrator of Undercover Ostrich believes that these large birds are experts at camouflage. The illustrations, however, tell a different story. When the narrator challenges readers to find the ostrich, it’s not hard to do. The world’s largest bird stands out on every page.

Readers will laugh when they see the ostrich “hiding” on a telephone wire and on the subway train. They’ll enjoy the befuddled looks the ostrich gives while “undercover.” More giggles will ensue when the narrator makes an appearance at the end of the story.

Author/illustrator Joe Kulka delivers a humorous story by juxtaposing the narrator’s words with the illustrations. This interesting method of storytelling will engage readers to appreciate the outrageous scenarios of an ostrich hiding in plain sight. The cartoon illustrations add to the fun.

Lesson Activity

AASL Standards Framework for Learners Inquire/Create I.B.3 Learners engage with new knowledge by following a process that includes generating products that illustrate learning.

The ostrich in this story clearly needs help hiding. Invite learners to consider why the ostrich stood out in each setting. Then, watch “Can You Find the Camouflaged Animals” by Earth Rangers to see what it takes to hide in plain sight.

Next, show learners pictures of ostriches in nature. Ask what they notice about the features and colors of the ostriches. Encourage learners to consider what kind of natural scenery an ostrich would need in order to hide. Explain that they will illustrate a picture of an ostrich that blends in with the background.

If you are wondering how to draw an ostrich, this video from the Art for Kids Hub YouTube channel will show you how.

Have fun!

If you enjoyed this lesson activity that inspires inquiry, check out our other blog posts that spark curiosity.

Cover of Lessons Inspired by Picture Books for Primary Grades by Maureen Schlosser and Rebecca Granatini.
If you like these lesson ideas, please take a look at our book, Lessons Inspired by Picture Books for Primary Grades. This resource includes ready-to-go lesson plans that meet the standards. Worksheets, assessments and rubrics are included.

Our Favorite Day of the Year Lesson Activity

This is a promotional illustration for a lesson activity based on the book Our Favorite Day of the Year. The cover of the book is centered on top of a green chalkboard with images of holiday icons.

How do we build a sense of community in our classrooms? Start by reading Our Favorite Day of the Year by A. E. Ali and Rahele Jomepour Bell. This important story features a diverse classroom where cultural traditions are celebrated.

The story begins with a teacher explaining why she loves the first day of school. It’s on this day that she gets to meet new people. She explains that they will all become close friends. They’ll learn about each other by celebrating everyone’s favorite day. This is exciting news to four boys who are the main focus of the story.

Through the boys presentations, we see how they celebrate Eid Al-Fitr, Rosh Hashanah, Las Posadas and Pi Day with their families. The boys are delighted to learn about the different celebrations. They get to know more about each other and become friends.

The illustrations in this book are heartwarming. Readers can feel the excitement from the children as they learn about each other’s families and traditions. The textured illustrations add interest to the story. My favorite picture shows a mother wearing a colorful hijab, a patterned dress and striped leggings. The natural flow in the material make the clothes seem three-dimensional.

The endpapers are a real treat. A quilt made of twenty-eight squares represent different cultures and holidays. Readers will be curious about the meaning behind some of the illustrated squares. They’ll also make connections with familiar symbols.

Lesson Activity

AASL Standards Framework for Learners Include/Create II.B.3 Learners adjust their awareness of the global learning community by representing diverse perspectives during learning activities.

Ask learners if they ever heard the saying, “Don’t judge a book by its cover.” In Our Favorite Day of the Year, Musa judged the boys at his table just by looking at them. He doubted that they could be friends because they “didn’t look like his friends.” Ask learners how the show-and-tell presentations changed Musa’s thinking. Invite them to consider how things would be different if they didn’t share their favorite days of the year.

Explain that today they will imagine how people might judge them the first time they meet. They’ll also consider what they want people to know about them. Learners will need a paper bag, scissors, paper and colored pencils, crayons or markers for this lesson.

On the outside of the bag, learners will draw a picture of themselves. They’ll also write how people might see them the first time they meet.

The inside of the bag is for what they wish people knew about them. They will write things people would miss if they judged them solely on their looks. They can write about their hopes, dreams and accomplishments on scraps of paper and put them in the bag. Here are some sentence starters to consider:

Sentence Starters to Learn More About Each Other
  • I am curious about…
  • People may think I am…, but I am really…
  • My favorite thing to do is…
  • I worry about…
  • I am really good at…
  • What I really want people to know about me is that I…
  • By the end of the year, I want to know how to…
  • I’m having a tough time with…

After the writing exercise, learners will share their bags with classmates. They will ask each other questions and have discussions to learn more about one another.

Resources

This lesson idea was inspired by Liz Kleinrock, an anti-bias, antiracist educator/writer. She uses the paper bag lesson to inspire meaningful discussions on identity. Learn more about her work on these websites: Teach and Transform and Empowering Educators. Click here to see Kleinrock’s TED Talk.

Try pairing this lesson activity with the book Milo Imagines the World.

Cover of Lessons Inspired by Picture Books for Primary Grades by Maureen Schlosser and Rebecca Granatini.
If you like these lesson ideas, please take a look at our book, Lessons Inspired by Picture Books for Primary Grades. This resource includes ready-to-go lesson plans that meet the standards. Worksheets, assessments and rubrics are included.

Hike by Pete Oswald Lesson Activity

Promotional image for the book Hike by Pete Oswald. The book cover is featured in the foreground with a sepia map in the background. The map shows the outlines of city buildings on the left with mountains, lakes and trees on the right. A trail winds its way through the center of the map.

Summary

Imagine telling a story using only illustrations. How would you engage readers to look closely at the images to gather meaning? Author-illustrator Pete Oswald is a master at visual storytelling. In his book Hike, Oswald uses vignettes, sequenced panels and double-page spreads to guide readers in a visual journey.

The magic of reading Hike starts on the book’s cover. The title, in block letters, reads from the bottom up. A father and son climb the letters with hiking gear. Each letter in the title illustrates the pair hiking in the mountains. The artwork conveys a sense of adventure that readers will enjoy.

The most fascinating feature of Hike is the revelation on the copyright page. Here, we learn that the story is not really about a hike. Instead, it’s about family tradition. We begin to notice something is up when a family album appears on the pages at the end of the story. We first see the album in the boys hand. Then it appears on the kitchen counter. Finally, the opened album is on the boy’s lap. The copyright page reveals what’s inside the album; generations of family members planting a tree in the mountains. Close readers will remember seeing the album at the beginning of the book on the boy’s bedside table.

Lesson Activity for Hike

AASL Standards Framework for Learners: Explore/Think V.A.3 Learners develop and satisfy personal curiosity by engaging in inquiry-based processes for personal growth.

Ask learners to write about a family tradition for three minutes. Challenge learners to keep their pencils writing. They don’t have to write complete sentences. Lists and key words will work. If learners can’t think of something to write, they can just write something like “what else can I write about my family tradition”.

After the writing exercise, invite learners to choose a word that represents their family tradition. Explain that they will create block letters out of that word and illustrate the inside of each letter. The illustrations will tell a story about their tradition. They will use the cover of the book Hike as a model for their illustration.

Want to learn how to create big, bold letters? Watch this demonstration of how to create block letters by Dave McDonald. A segment about drawing bubble letters is also included.

Learners may also want to explore illustrative maps after looking at the title page. Invite them to think about what the map is telling them. Welcome them to learn more about maps by reading Camilla, Cartographer by Julie Dillemuth and Laura Wood.

Cover of Lessons Inspired by Picture Books for Primary Grades by Maureen Schlosser and Rebecca Granatini.
If you like these lesson ideas, please take a look at our book, Lessons Inspired by Picture Books for Primary Grades. This resource includes ready-to-go lesson plans that meet the standards. Worksheets, assessments and rubrics are included.
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